This establishes a programming environment, which is a workflow in which multiple pieces of software work together in order to make reaching your goals as easy as possible. Many programming rely on IDEs, or integrated development environments, such as Xcode for writing MacOS and iOS apps or R Studio for writing in R. These are one-stop shops that try to handle the entirety of your project within one piece of software. We’ll reach a similar state with Atom, below, but not before first making a detour through Git.
A key concept to application development is versioning. That is, by making use of a piece of software called a version control system, a project can work as though it has a time machine attached to it. But not just a time machine.
Before moving forward, note that above I don’t refer to a “document” or even a “file.” Most of the homework you’ve ever turned in before for an English class has probably been a document, most likely written in Microsoft Word. In this environment, we’re not creating one document or one file. Instead, we’re working on one project, which is made up of many files, where each file contributes its own bit to the project as a whole. A website (or a webapp) is an example of a project—one that is made up, of course, of many documents. For example, on even the most basic website, the information on the front page could be saved in one file, and the information in the “About” page could be saved in another.
Thinking in terms of projects, not documents, is perhaps the first vital leap for you to make. What we are building in this course is a website that is a project. As such, you will have a folder for your project, and everything in that folder will be under version control.
The version control system we will use in this course is called Git. Git is famously opaque, and, worse, a novice user (like us) uses about three commands all the time except when things go wrong. Luckily, when things go wrong, Git is often there to help us out. Nevertheless, Git deserves its reputation that leads to websites like “Oh Shit, Git!”
Git calls a project a repository, so in the context of using Git, I’ll do the same. A repository is a folder with files in it, like any regular folder of files you have on your computer. However it also has, hidden from view, a history of all the files in the folder. Git knows exactly when a file was added. It knows every change ever made to each file. It even knows about files that have been deleted, and it can resurrect them, if needed.
So far, this sounds like a backup system. And Git is also that. But it can do much more. For example, every change you record with Git, called a commit, also has a commit message attached to it, where you can leave a note for yourself (or a collaborator!) that tells you what you were thinking when you made a change. Why did you put this paragraph before that one? Read your old commit messages.
Additionally, Git lets you push your changes to a central version of the repository. This means that you can work on one computer, save your work, commit it, push it, and then, on another computer, pull the changes and get right back to work—with all that history still built in, even though you were working on another computer!
That covers all of what we’ll be doing with Git in this course, and that is already a lot. But as you can see, the system of committing, pushing, and pulling means that collaboration becomes very easy. Additionally, Git allows for branching, where you create new branches for your project. Now Git is not only a time machine, but it’s also an interdimensional portal leading you to alternate universes. In one universe, your text could be written full of jokes. In another, the writing can be very serious.
For the purposes of this course, we will be using Git via the website GitHub. GitHub will serve as the remote point to which you push your project, and GitHub will even, down the road, host the project. At the end of this course, you’ll have a web address including “github.io” that you can send to your friends and family to show off your progress.
In addition to being a user-friendlier face for the Git software, GitHub also includes features that expand what Git offers, such as built in discussion boards where users can discuss issues. We won’t be using that functionality in this class, but that should stand in to remind you that things on GitHub are public by default. Keep this in mind when you’re typing commit messages or working on your project: it’s all visible to anyone who has a look at your repository. Don’t let that scare you from using GitHub. Just keep it in mind.
Create yourself a GitHub user
The first step with GitHub is easy. Go to GitHub.com and create an account. Choose the free plan. You should get an email, and once you verify it, you can click on the “Start a project” button.
If you’re a current student, you can request a discount for GitHub. That discount entitles you to a limited number of private repositories.
Fork the course repository
In GitHub, anyone can access anyone else’s (public) repositories, or projects. And, what’s more, anyone can make an identical copy of that repository for their own use. This is called forking, and the next step is to fork the repository I have already made for this course.
While logged into GitHub, point your browser to:
Once that page loads, there should be a “Fork” button in the top-right corner. Click on that. If it asks you where to fork it, click on your user, and now the repository should appear in your account under this URL:
Where it reads
YOURUSERNAME, it should read, of course, the GitHub username
you chose for yourself. Make a note of this URL, as you’ll need it in a few
You’re probably used to writing your English homework in Microsoft Word or, maybe, Pages. Or maybe you use Google Docs. They are all fine word processors, and I’ve used them all. Actually, I’ve been using Microsoft Word since well before you were born, probably. But they all make two conceptual assumptions that go against the work we are doing in this course.
First, they deal with documents, not projects. Remember, in this course you have to think in terms of a project, not just in terms of a single document. Something like Word is great for a single document, like a business letter or five-page paper. When it comes to something with lots of moving parts, like a web project (or a dissertation…), it starts to creak.
Second, the big advance Word brought to the computing world was fusing what a document says along with how it looks.1 In Word, whatever the document looks like on your screen is a pretty good approximation of what it will look like in your printer.2 You can change fonts, font sizes, margins, and so on, for a single document, and when you print it, it will follow your instructions as closely as possible as it prints to a US Letter sheet of paper.3 This is, of course, because of the first assumption: you’re writing a document that is going to get printed.
We’re writing a website, however. And who knows what kind of device will be used to view it. Imagine if you write a page with 2-inch margins and visit it on a smartphone. You’ll see nothing but margins! When you’re writing for the web, you’re handing off a lot of decisions regarding how the content will look to the user, who could be using a giant monitor or a teeny smartphone to view your site. Of course, you still have some control over how things look. A lot, in fact. But in order to do that, you have to rethink the basics of writing. You now have to focus on the content much more than the look.
A plain text editor
One way of “focusing on the content” is by stripping away a lot of the frippery that a program like Word provides. We won’t need something that can make charts or insert clip art. We won’t be changing fonts willy-nilly. And we definitely aren’t creating something that lives only to be printed out. We are creating, again, a project, not a document.
Furthermore, we will be writing code in addition to text. In your own project,
you will be programming functions and writing paragraphs. The former requires
as the browser). The latter will be converted into HTML, which means it has to
be written in plain text that can be fed to the HTML renderer (also known as
the browser). Instead of one
.docx file, we will have
.js files for our
.html files for our HTML webpages. Finally, Git
is much friendlier with regular text files (like
.html files) than
it is with
.docx files. You can use Git with Word, but then you’re basically
just using it as a backup system, not as a version control system.
Atom is a fully-featured text editor that can also serve as an IDE. It also has Git (and GitHub) support built in. This makes sense; it’s part of the GitHub ecosystem. Atom is a serious program with lots and lots of features. I’ll only be teaching a few here, but I’ll also teach a few more as the course goes on. It also does not behave like Word, which will take a bit of getting used to. Still, I hope that, for project-based work, you will see that it works much better than Word or a similar word processor.
You can download the software from the Atom page, and installation should be rather straightforward. Once you install it, when you open it, you will be greeted with a welcome tab and the welcome guide tab in a separate pane. Atom works on the visual metaphor of panes with tabs. You can change the widths of the panes and show and hide them with your mouse. Similarly, the tabs work like the tabs do in Chrome, for good reason.4
Start customizing with packages
From the Welcome Guide, I recommend immediately clicking on “Install a Package.” Ben Balter has come up with a list of useful Atom packages for writing prose, but I’ll mention the most useful ones here. Once you click on “Install a Package,” you can click on “Open Installer” and start installing packages by searching for them and then clicking the “Install” button.
file-icons: this gives you pretty icons in the Atom sidebar and tabs. These visual cues are, in my experience, more useful than file name extensions.
zen: creates a distraction-free, full-screen Atom experience.
linter-just-say-no: both of these are style or grammar linters to help with your writing. Of course, as with any programmatic grammar or style checker, sometimes their advice is nonsense. I find that these get in the way, but they might be useful for you, especially if you’re worried about how well you write English.
For each of these, you have to type the name into the little search bar in the Install Packages part of the Settings tab. The linters may ask you to add some other packages to fulfill dependencies. That’s ok.
Continue customizing by enabling autosave
Atom ships with autosave disabled by default. That’s probably not behavior
you’re expecting, so you should enable it! After you’re done installing
packages, you’ll be on the Settings tab, which has a few subcategories, like
Core, Editor, and so on. Choose Packages. This gives a list of all the
packages you have installed, as well as giving you a chance to configure them.
autosave into the filter box at the top, and then click on “Settings”
once the autosave package shows up under “Core Packages.”
Tick the box beside “Enabled” under settings, and now Atom will autosave any file as soon as you click away from its tab, even if you go to another application.
While the Settings tab is still open, click on “Core” and “Editor” and change things around these if you like. The defaults are pretty good, but you may want to change the “Font Family” in Editor. Type in the name of your preferred font, provided that it is installed. You can make the default text larger or smaller, and so on. One more setting to consider in Editor is “Soft Wrap.” With it off, your text will keep running off the side of the window as you type. Soft Wrap, like in Word or Notes, breaks lines so that everything fits inside the window.
Finally, under Themes, you can do some basic changing of the user interface, theme, and the syntax theme for the editor. Pick a light one or a dark one, whichever you think fits your personality. I personally use the solarized themes, based on Ethan Schoonover’s Solarized precision color project.
Link Atom to GitHub
Atom is written by the people at GitHub, so it’s pretty easy to link the two together. In fact, that’s the main reason I encourage you to install Atom. The Atom people have written a decent introduction to most of what I describe here, so it’s useful to glance over at their screenshots, etc., if this part gets too confusing.
First, you have to get the URL of the repository you forked a few steps ago:
YOURUSERNAME should be replaced with your own GitHub username. Now
.git to the end of it, so you have:
This is the URL you will need for cloning.
Second, return to Atom. Here, open up the command palette by going to the
“Packages” menu, choosing “Command Palette” and then “Toggle.” In the little
box that opens, type “git” and choose the option labeled “GitHub: Clone.” For
“Clone from,” paste or type in the URL above ending in
.git with your
username. Atom will automatically save it to a GitHub folder it creates in
your home folder, but you can change this location if you like.
Now, if you have the file-icons package installed, in the Projects pane, you
should see a small book icon with your repository name beside it, and,
underneath it, you should see a folder called
.git, a file called
README.md, and a few other files. These are the contents of your repository,
and they are now on your computer.
Third, let’s make an explicit connection between GitHub and Atom. Open up the GitHub pane (“Packages” > “GitHub” > “Toggle GitHub Tab”), and you should now see a button asking you to log in or a message encouraging you to go to the GitHub Atom login page. If you don’t, make sure that your project is open and loaded in Atom. Otherwise, click on “Login” and then click on the web address, which will open a new page in your browser asking you for permission to have Atom talk to your GitHub account. Click on “Authorize atom” and then copy the extremely long code that appears. Paste it back into the GitHub pane back on Atom.
You should get a message saying “No pull request could be found for the branch master,” and so on. You’ve made the connection.
Make a change, stage a file, commit, and push
We’re in the homestretch now, but this section is the most important, because
it’s a description of what you will be doing with Git in Atom most of the
time. In the “Projects” tab, there should be a file called
click on it, and it should open in a new tab. You should see some text that
I’ve written. Go ahead and delete it all and type in something of your own,
like your name and your goals for your project (it’s ok if they’re vague for
Just clicking away from the window should autosave the document, which you do by now opening the Git tab (“Packages” > “GitHub” > “Toggle Git Tab”). You will use this tab much more often than the GitHub tab, so it might be worthwhile to remember the keyboard shortcut, control-shift-9.
The Git tab is split into three horizontal sections, Unstaged, Staged, and
Commit. Unstaged lists all the files you have saved but have not yet
committed. If the icon beside the file is a green cross, that means it is a
new file, never before saved to the repository.
README.md, on the other
hand, should appear in unstaged changes with a yellow box with a dot. That
means that the file is in the repository, but changes have been made to it
that have not yet been committed. Finally, if you were to delete a file, it
would show up there with a red minus sign. Yes, in Git, a file is never truly
If you click on one of the files in the Unstaged area, a new tab will open
with a lot of green (and maybe some red) text. That shows everything you have
added or removed from the file since its last commit. With
will be a lot of red and hopefully a lot of green.
Click on the “Stage All” button at the top of the Unstaged area to move all the files to the Staged area. Or, if you like, you can only move one file at a time. I usually try to commit things thematically. So if I make some changes on one file and totally unrelated changes to another file, I will make two separate commits. But if both are related (say I change the name of something in both places), then it can be one commit. There’s no right way to committing. Do what feels like a good balance between often enough to be useful yet infrequent enough so that you actually get work done.
Once files are in the Staged area, you can commit. That will take the files in the Staged area and log the changes to the files in the Git time machine. Any changes you make backwards or forwards between commits doesn’t matter. Git only tracks commits, not individual saves.
Type in a useful commit message (like
Edit README) in the Commit box and
press “Commit.” The changes have been recorded.
The final step is pushing the changes up to GitHub. Once you have a commit, the up arrow at the bottom right corner of the Atom window will have a little “1” appear next to it. If you make another commit, that “1” will become a “2.” Once you’ve got enough commits and want to push, click on that arrow, and Atom will ask you for your GitHub username and password. Type them in, wait a minute, and then if you go to GitHub and refresh your repository, you will see the changes that you’ve made.5
Parting Atom thoughts
There’s a whole lot going on in this section, but it’s mostly stuff you just have to do once to set up the environment. As I wrote above, Atom is a very heavy duty program that can do a whole lot more than what we will use it for. Whenever you get frustrated with Atom’s menus and the like, always remember that you can launch the command palette by typing command-shift-p on a Mac or control-shift-p on Windows. That brings up a small window that lets you type in whatever command you want to execute.
Also, Atom will be frustrating the first few times. Any new piece of software is. By the end of this course, though, I hope that you’ll see why I insisted on this unpleasantness at the beginning. And if you are interested in learning more about Atom, please have a look at their documentation, that includes the Flight Manual book, and an introductory video.
In Firefox, the console is hidden the “Tools” menu, under “Web Developer” and “Web Console” on the Mac. On Windows/Linux, it is in the “Web Developer” submenu of the “Firefox” menu. Or, type control-shift-k for Windows/Linux or command-option-k for Mac.
In Chrome, open the DevTools palette either by typing control-shift-j (Windows/Linux) or command-option-j (Mac). Or, find the tools in the Chrome menu (upper right, beside the address bar), under “More Tools” and “Developer Tools.” Once the DevTools palette opens, you can click on the “Console” tab.
Whichever browser you’re using, the console looks more or less the same. It’s
a large empty window with a
> at the
> is called the “prompt.” Beside the prompt, type:
Hit return. The console should respond with
Throughout the rest of this course, when something needs to be typed at the
prompt, I will include the
>. This time I skipped it, to make things a bit
clearer for those who have never used a prompt before.
- Create a GitHub account.
- Fork the blank repository for this course from
- Install Atom on your computer with some useful packages.
- Link Atom to your GitHub account.
- Use Atom to clone the repository you forked.
- Flesh out your hopes for your personal project in the
README.mdfile and commit the changes.
- Push your commit(s) from your computer up to GitHub.
Of course, whether a text still means the same thing when it looks different is an unsettled question in literary study. ↩
Microsoft Word was not, of course, the first “WYSIWYG” (“What You See Is What You Get”) word processor. It appeared around the same time as MacWrite did, and both of those applications were building on ideas established years earlier at Xerox. Nevertheless, as Windows began to gain dominance on the PC market, Word became ubiquitous, leaving it as the “default” example of a WYSIWYG word processor to this day. ↩
Or A4 paper, if you’re outside the United States. ↩
I, personally, overpush. I usually commit and immediately push, which is generally fine, but it can be embarrassing sometimes. Also, since the default means by which Atom pushes to GitHub asks you for your username and password, it makes sense to push only every few commits or so. Find a balance that works for you, but remember to always finish your work before a break with a commit and a push, just in case! ↩